What is short dump and how to rectify?

Short dump specifies that an ABAP runtime error has occurred and the error messages are written to the R/3 database tables. You can view the short dump through transaction ST22.
You get short dumps b’coz of runtime errors. The short dump u got is due to the termination of background job. This could be of many reasons.
You can check short dumps in T-code ST22. U can give the job tech name and your userid. It will show the status of jobs in the system. Here you can even analyze short dump. U can use ST22 in both R/3 and BW.
OR To call an analysis method, choose Tools –> ABAP Workbench –> Test –> Dump-Analysis from the SAP Easy Access menu.
In the initial screen, you must specify whether you want to view today’s dump or the dump from yesterday. If these selection criteria are too imprecise, you can enter more specific criteria. To do this, choose Goto –> Select Short Dump
You can display a list of all ABAP dumps by choosing Edit –> Display List. You can then display and analyze a selected dump. To do this, choose Short Dump –> Dump Analysis.